Title: In Vitro Protocol to Maintain the Medicinal Plant Pergularia tomentosa from Extinction

Abstract:The importance for the conservation via micropropagation in vitro of the Egyptian desert plant Pergularia tomentosa was supported after the isolation and identification of the highly stable and water soluble cardiac glycosides with very importance medicinal activities and wide safety verge. The study included seed germination, micropropagation from nodal segment and rooting experiments for plant conservation in Egyptian plant bank. Seeds germination for obtaining best seedlings was MS3 medium which contained 0.1mg/l BA combined with 0.1mg/l NAA while MS6 was the best for shoot multiplication from nodal segment explant. The highest results for rooting were obtained using IBA alone in low concentration. It can be concluded that by using plant growth regulators via tissue culture technique rare and pharmaceutical plants Pergularia tomentosa plant could be conserved and protected from extinction. Conservation, and sustainable use of this resource is therefore of great importance for the domestic and international supply of this resource.




Title: Laser-assisted dental caries treatment

Abstract:Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, affecting 60-90% of school-age children and almost 100% of the adult population. Disease prevention at early ages is a fundamental public health principle and particularly relevant for dental caries.\nOne modern alternative method, gaining popularity in recent years is the application of lasers in clinical practice. Different type of laser systems are used in conservative dentistry in several fields as carious lesions diagnosis, desensitization of hypersensitive teeth, remineralisation of initial carious lesions and dental caries treatment.




Title: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess: a literature review

Abstract:Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare infection of the central nervous system that can occur in adults and children. Although causes of ISCA include sepsis (bacteremia), trauma, and surgery, most adult cases are cryptogenic or hematogenous. In pediatric cases, congenital dermal sinus is implicated as the leading cause of ISCA. It is difficult to diagnose ISCA before the appearance of neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging with administration of a contrast material is the gold standard diagnostic modality. The recommended treatment for ISCA is a combination of antimicrobial therapy with surgical procedures. Whether a treatment consisting of only antibiotics without surgical procedures is sufficient to cure ISCA remains uncertain, particularly in adult cases. Although mortality of ISCA has decreased (<10%) in recent years, cases of concomitant brain abscess have been associated with poor prognosis. Patients often suffer from residual neurological deficits even after adequate treatment.




Title: Comparison of apical sealing ability of two root canal filling techniques

Abstract:Introduction:\nSuccess in root canal treatment was founded upon the triad of thorough canal deb- ridement, effective disinfection and obturation of the canal space. Three-dimensional obturation of the canal space to the working length has been depicted as the most critical component of root canal treatment for sealing and isolating the canal space from irritants that remain after shaping and cleaning, and for eliminating leakage from the periradicular tissues or oral cavity into the filled canal space.\n\n Purpose:\nThe aim of our in vitro study was to evaluate the sealing quality of the core-carrier system GuttaCore and compare it with central cone technique with tapered gutta-percha cones regarding apical leakage.\n\n Materials and methods: \n 24 human single rooted teeth were used for the study. Root canal preparation was done using ProTaper Universal rotary system up to F3. The teeth were randomly assigned into 2 groups, depending on the root canal filling technique. The specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye and the linear dye leakage at the apical third was measured in mm.\n \nResults: \nStatistical analysis showed that Guttacore group had significantly less leakage in apical third than the central cone technique.\nConclusions: \n Under the conditions of this study, it could be concluded that obturator techniques showed better sealing results as the central cone technique in the apical third of root canals.




Title: Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Artemisia Herba alba essential oil and its fortification effect on ruminal fermentation in vitro

Abstract:The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of Artemisia Herba-alba essential oil (AHAEO) on in vitro rumen fermentation of a diet based on oats hay. Artemisia leaves and twigs were collected from the central region of Tunisia (Thala) in spring. The essential oil was extracted using hydro-distillation and analyzed using GC/MS. Increasing doses of essential oil were added to 0.3g of oats hay and incubated in glass syringes using rumen content from sheep and then fermentation parameters were measured. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity is evaluated by the DPPH test and the antibacterial powers against four bacterial strains is measured by the agar well method diffusion. GC/MS results showed that the main components of Artemisia Herba-alba essential oil were β-thujone (23.92%) and chrysanthenone (17.4%). Indeed, the results showed a potent antioxidant effect of AHAEO with inhibitory percent reaches as high as 85.25% of free radicals, the IC50 value obtained for scavenging activity on DPPH was 84.77µg /ml. Concerning the antibacterial activity, the oil was active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. A strong effect was observed against Salmonella (29mm) and Bacillus (22.5mm). The results of in vitro fermentation showed a significant difference between the essential oil doses (p <0.05). There was an increase in fermentation parameters for low doses, specially for 5µl (TAVF=0.77 mmol /syringe, ME=7.1MJ /Kg DM, IVOMD=47.6% and NH3-N=6.65 mg /100ml). However, an inhibition of methane production is noted with increasing doses. To conclude that AHAEO can be envisaged as a potential additive to manipulate rumen fermentation and improve feed efficiency in ruminant.




Title: Effect of laser irradiation on the apical root canal sealing

Abstract:Introduction:\nCleaning and shaping of the root canal system are essential for the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. In addition to the routinely used irrigating solutions, other technologies have been investigated for the treatment of root canal dentine, such as different types of laser systems. Laser irradiation may carry out multiple functions, including disinfection and sterilization, removal of the smear layer, and melting and sealing of the dentin tubule to improve the sealing performance of the root canal.\nPurpose:\nThe aim of our in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different types of laser irradiation (Er:YAG , Nd:YAG, diode laser and photodynamic therapy) on the intracanal dentin and their interference in the apical seal of filled root canals.\nMaterials and Methods: \n 72 human single rooted teeth were randomly assigned into 6 groups. Root canal preparation was done using ProTaper Universal rotary system up to F3. The laser irradiation was performed at the end of the traditional endodontic preparation as a final means of decontaminating the endodontic system. Teeth were filled with a core-carrier system Guttacore (Dentsply, Sirona) and sealer AH- plus. \nResults: \n Statistical analysis showed that all groups had significantly less leakage in apical third than the control group. The laser-treated groups presented better results than Group II (Classical disinfection protocol), without statistically significant difference. The morphological changes on the apical intraradicular dentin surface caused by Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser irradiation resulted at least linear dye apical leakage. \nConclusions: \n Laser irradiation may improve the apical seal of the root canal. Different type of laser systems with appropriate parameters are recommended to be used as an adjunct to the current chemical root canal disinfection protocols.




Title: Influence of diode lasers on the apical leakage in endodontic treatment

Abstract:Introduction:\n The outcome of root canal treatment is based on efficient disinfection of the root canal system and prevention of reinfection. Current chemomechanical cleaning methods do not always achieve these goals, and insufficient root canal disinfection is the main reason for endodontic failure. \n Purpose:\n The aim of our in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser irradiation (λ=660 nm and λ=970 nm) on the intracanal dentin and their interference in the apical seal of filled root canals. \n Materials and methods: \n 48 human single rooted teeth were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Root canal preparation was done using ProTaper Universal rotary system up to F3. 2 % Sodium hypochlorite, 17 % EDTA and distilled water were used as irrigants. The laser irradiation was performed at the end of the traditional endodontic preparation and teeth were filled with gutta-percha and AH- plus. The apical leakage was report on mm. \nResults: \n Statistical analysis showed that the laser-treated groups had significantly less leakage in apical third than the control group. \nConclusions: \n Certain lasers can help in removing the smear layer and debris and can modify the morphology of the root canal wall for better root canal sealing.




Title: In Vivo study of the inflammatory reaction against three different laser light activated photosensitizers

Abstract:Purpose\n The aim of our study is to investigate what is the inflammatory reaction of biological tissue to two types of phtalocyanine photosensitizers and FotoSan.\n \nMaterials and methods\nFor the purpose of the study 72 white male Wistar rats weighing 200–250 g were used. After a 10-days-lasting quarantine period, the animals were randomly divided into four groups of 18 animals each, according to the substances tested and the observation period: group I – animals injected with ZnPc; group II – animals injected with GaPc; group III – animals injected with Fotosan; group IV – animals injected with 0.9% saline (control group). At the end of the observational period six animals from each group were randomly divided in three subgroups according to euthanasia time: 24 hours, 72 hours and 7 days after treatment.\n\nResults\n No inflammation was present in 83.3% of the animals in the control group with FotoSan™ on the first and third days. The same results were found in 100% of the animals in the Ga- and Zn-phthalocyanines control groups in all three follow-up periods and in the FotoSan™- group on the seventh day.\n\nConclusions\n The present in vitro study demonstrated the very good biocompatibility of experimental animals to metal phthalocyanine photosensitizers based on Zn- and Ga- and the commercial product FotoSan, as well as to laser radiation with a wavelength of 665 nm.




Title: Investigation of biocompatibility of Zn- and Ga-based Metalphthalocyanine and FotoSan � Photosensitizers, activated by laser light

Abstract:Introduction:\nPhotodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. The photosensitizers mostly used in dentistry for antimicrobial PDT are Methylene blue (MB) and Toluidine blue (TB) based photosensitizers.\n\nPurpose:\nThe aim of our study is to investigate the biocompatibility of Zn- and Ga-based metalphthalocyanine and FotoSan ™ photosensitizers.\n\nMatherial and methods:\n For the purpose of the study 72 white male Wistar rats were used. After a 10-days-lasting quarantine period, the animals were randomly divided into four groups of 18 animals each: group I – animals injected with ZnPc2; group II – animals injected with GaPc; group III – animals injected with Fotosan; group IV – animals injected with 0.9% saline (control group). The test substances were injected subcutaneously and the skin is irradiated with a red diode laser. At the end of the observational period the animals were sacrificed by spinal dislocation in the cervical region, in accordance with Ordinance No. 15 from 03.02.2006 on minimum requirements for the experimental animals’ protection and welfare. Six animals from each group were randomly divided in three subgroups according to euthanasia time: 24 hours after treatment; 72 hours after treatment and 7 days after treatment. After the euthanasia macroscopic examination and description of the findings in the treated areas were performed, and then material for histological examination was taken.\n \n Results:\n In all three experimental follow-up periods, the macroscopic findings showed no abnormalities.\n\n Conclusions:\n The present study demonstrates a very good biocompatibility of experimental animals to metal phthalocyanine photosensitizers based on Zn- and Ga- and the commercial product FotoSan, as well as to laser radiation with a wavelength of 665 nm.




Title: Effect of Therapeutic Foot Reflexology Massage on Anxiety and Sleep quality among Hospitalized Cardiac Patients

Abstract:Background Cardiac patients with acute myocardial infarction have anxiety and poor sleep quality. Foot reflexology massage as a nursing measure has been important for improvement of quality of sleep and decrease anxiety level in these patients. \nAim of this study was to evaluate the effect of therapeutic foot reflexology massage on anxiety and sleep quality among hospitalized cardiac patients. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental design two groups (study and control) were used to achieve the aim of this study. The study was conducted at the cardiac care department affiliated to Menoufia University Hospital, in Shebin-Elkom District, Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Eighty adult patients who admitted with acute myocardial infarction were used as a purposive sample in the current study. Three tools of data collection were used: I. structured interview questionnaire, II. Spielberger\'s State anxiety inventory and III. St. Mary\'s Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Results: the findings revealed that there was a significant statistically difference between the study and control groups regarding the anxiety mean scores after therapeutic foot reflexology massage as a nursing intervention, p=0.00. As well as there was a significant statistically difference between study and control groups concerning the mean scores of sleep quality after therapeutic foot reflexology massage p=0.00. But there was no significant statistically difference between the mean scores of anxiety and sleep quality after receiving routine hospital care in study and control group (p= 0.716; 782 respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic foot reflexology massage decreases anxiety and improves quality of sleep in cardiac patients with acute myocardial infarction. Recommendation: it is recommended to perform therapeutic foot reflexology massage to decrease anxiety and improve sleep quality for patients with acute myocardial infarction and also continuous Psychiatric assessment and treatment for anxiety, depression, stress, fatigue, and sleep disorders are required.