Abstract:Underground construction has become a common practice worldwide; induced ground movements are a significant concern for most underground construction projects in urban areas because these can cause damage or possible collapse in adjacent structures. Consequently, accurate prediction of surface ground movement is important to design criteria in the analysis and design of excavation support systems. All codes of practice are based on the design criteria is to satisfy the factor of safety to prevent the collapse of the system and around the soil. It implies that the surface ground movement is a secondary concern. However, many buildings and utilities are sensitive to small movements induced by excavation, which may lead to cracks on adjacent buildings and damages. The objective of this paper is to study the ground movement induced by probed deep excavation. Single, double, and multi anchored systems are considered in this study. The parametric study includes the effect of changing the value, the position of applied surcharge, the penetration depth of the retaining system, and the pre-stressing force. Two case studies were used, and finite element analysis was carried out to predict the ground movement. Plain strain analysis has been carried out using PLAXIS version 8.5 software.
Abstract:In this work we determine the distribution in plant of production department 541, of a company that manufactures safety products, which minimizes the total costs associated with the flow of materials and distances traveled by materialists between each of the manufacturing cells of the department. The distribution in plant was obtained by applying the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm, with three different combinations of the values of its four parameters, highlighting the importance of carefully selecting the values of those parameters, since they depend on the effectiveness of the algorithm. For each combination, 40 runs were performed in the Microsoft Office Excel 14 spreadsheet, generating feasible solutions. The optimal solution obtained with the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm is the permutation matrix (163542), which matches the result obtained with the Max-Min ant system algorithm, supporting its optimal solution position, to minimize the total cost of plant distribution.
Abstract:Zambian free-range Indigenous chickens are uncharacterized low performing mixture of breeds with so much potential for improvement. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship existent between body weight (BW) of Zambian indigenous free-range chickens and their linear body measurement traits, i.e. corpus length (CL), chest circumference (CC), thigh length (TL), thigh circumference (TC), shank circumference (SC), shank length (SL), keel length (KL) and body length (BL) using path analysis. This was to form a base for selection and breeding. 478 Chickens were individually weighed using an electronic balance, and their linear body measurements were also individually taken using a tailor鈥檚 tape. Path analysis was exploited and revealed that CL had the highest (0.44) direct impact on BW of cocks while TC had the highest direct effect (0.29) on BW of hens. This study not only revealed what direct and indirect impacts linear body measurements have on chicken body weight, it also provided a knowledge base on which further studies on the use of linear body measurement traits to predict body weight can be based. The findings of this study could help as a practical tool to estimate body weight and aid in selecting and breeding of indigenous chickens.
Abstract:The aim was to determine the effects of nicotine on various markers of oxidative stress and determine if glutamine and dexrazoxane are protective against effects of nicotine in rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with nicotine (1 mg/kg), dexrazoxane (62.5 mg/kg), nicotine & dexrazoxane, glutamine (625 mg/kg), and nicotine & glutamine. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, dopamine and ATPase were measured in brain. Lipid peroxidation increased in the cerebellum/medulla oblongata by glutamine, but decreased in the striatum with the other treatments. Glutathione decreased in striatum by glutamine alone and in combination with nicotine. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid increased in the cerebellum/medulla oblongata by nicotine but decreased in the striatum for other treatment. Dopamine increased in the cerebellum/medulla oblongata and the cortex by nicotine. ATPase increased in the cerebellum/medulla oblongata by nicotine alone and in cortex by nicotine in combination with glutamine, but decreased in the striatum with the other treatments. The results suggest that nicotine and glutamine may attenuate the action in nicotine¬-associated health complications. Reduction of oxidative stress and changes on 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid or dopamine metabolism may be involved in these effects.
Abstract:Photoelectrochemical water-splitting (PEC) is an encouraging alternative for hydrogen clean generation trough a renewable resource. Semiconductors like TiO2 and Cu2O are materials with specific characteristics that can be employed as photoelectrodes in the photoelectrolysis process. In this work, through a system of two electrodes was determined the conversion efficiency of solar energy using these semiconductors to produce hydrogen.
Abstract:Background: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a primary clinical concern associated with high incidence and mortality rates as well as health care costs worldwide. Aim of the study: first, it was to assess nurses\' knowledge and skills regarding ventilator-associated pneumonia. Second, to examine the effect of a bundle of care guidelines on the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the pediatric intensive care unit. Design: This study was quasi-experimental (Pre-/Post-test). Setting: This study was conducted in a pediatric intensive care unit at Shebin El Kom University Hospital, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Sample: A convenience sample of 35 nurses was recruited to achieve the first aim. A purposive sample of 194 ventilated children from patient\'s records six months before the intervention and 198 ventilated children6 months post-intervention were included. Tools: A structured interview questionnaire that assesses the Sociodemographic data of children and nurses, questions to assess nurses\' knowledge about ventilator-associated pneumonia. Observation checklist on ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention/management skills for nurses. Child\'s records to determine the previous profile of ventilated children six months of pre-intervention. Results: a high statistical significance difference was showed s regards nurses\' knowledge and skills pre-intervention compared to post-intervention. After six months of intervention, a significant difference in lowering the percent of ventilator-associated pneumonia occurrence among ventilated children was reported post-intervention. Conclusion: Bundle of care guidelines related to VAP was effective in improving pediatric nurses \' knowledge and skills. After the intervention, the percent of VAP occurrence among infants/children attending PICU was reduced post-intervention than in pre-intervention. Recommendation: Application of bundle of care guidelines is essential in maintaining the health and survival of ventilated children attending the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
Abstract:TiO2 and Cu2O nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical reduction of the precursors titanium (IV) isopropoxide and copper (II) sulfate 5-hydrate. TiO2 nanoparticles were doped with N atoms (10, 20 and 30% wt.) to improve its optical properties. Here it was compared photoactivity of titanium dioxide doped with non-metal atoms and cuprous oxide nanoparticles through photocurrent generation measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Optical characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles showed that band gap energy had a small decreased on doped samples and Cu2O had the lowest band gap energy value, 2.1 eV, the photocurrent measurement also showed a better behavior on Cu2O nanoparticles.
Abstract:The decomposition and release of nutrients from the litter is key to providing essential information about phenological development, vitality, and annual variation in reaction to climate and other environmental changes. Investigations in the tropics have compared managed and non-intervened ecosystems and have determined the importance of litter for the conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to evaluate cellulolytic fungi associated with the degradation of litter generated by native and exotic plant species during rain and drought events in the Cañaverales Spring, La Guajira - Colombia. The samples were taken in two phases, a first phase, where samples were collected for four months, the leaves were collected in the first month of monitoring prior to senescence of each species. The leaves as they were introduced in groups of 6 bags of 20 x 20cm per species. A total of 18 bags were collected monthly, through 6 collections during dry and rainy periods, a total of 108 bags for the 6 species. And the second phase were the procedures that were carried out in the laboratory, the samples were crushed and serial dilutions were made. From the dilutions, it was sown in triplicate on Sabouraud agar and incubated for 5 days at 25 ° C ± 2. Colonies were isolated and purified. The second isolate was picked on CMC agar for 72 hours at 30 ° C. Then, Congo red was added and cellulolytic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Cladosporium herbarum, Trichoderma reesei, Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Curvularia sp., Trichoderma sp.) Were isolated. It was evidenced that cellulolytic fungi associated with litter degradation influenced the increase in Carbon and Nitrogen. The fungal species with the highest activity and cellulolytic capacity were Cladosporium herbarum and Trichoderma reesei.
Abstract:The approximation for generalized trigonometric polynomials for Lipschitz defined functions in certain groups depends on certain properties of the group defined metric. Metrics which allow this approximation are called Lipschitz compatible. In this work we give for certain class of groups, conditions under which Lipschitz compatible metrics are boundedly equivalent, i.e., they generate the same Lipschitz space. In particular, for the multiplicative group of modulus one complex numbers the conditions are necessary and sufficient for the compatible Lipschitz metrics to be boundedly equivalent.
Abstract:Background: Pregnancy is a special physiological state where medication intake presents a challenge and concern due to altered drug pharmacokinetics and drug crossing the placenta possibly causing harm to the fetus. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of video assisted nursing counseling intervention on pregnant women knowledge, attitude and practice towards self -medication. Design: Quasi - experimental design (pre-post counseling) was used to carry out the study. Setting: The study was conducted in two Maternal and Child Health Care Centers at Shebin Elkom, Menoufia governerate. Sampling: A purposive sample of two hundred and fifty-seven pregnant women (one group pretest and posttest). Tools: Four tools were used for data collection a) Interviewing questionnaire b) Knowledge assessment questionnaire c) Attitude assessment questionnaire d) Practice assessment questionnaire. Results: This study showed that there was a highly significant difference at study participants knowledge, attitude, and practice towards self-medication pre and post video assisted nursing counseling intervention. Conclusion: Video assisted nursing counseling intervention had high significant impact on improving knowledge and changing attitude, and practice of study participants towards self-medication. Recommendation: ongoing education for maternity nurses about self-medication during pregnancy and its bad consequences, implementing in-service counseling programs regarding side effect of self- medication use during pregnancy to all expectant women, and replication of the study with large sample size to further settings.