Title: Metal-Ceramic Post-and-Cores for Complex Esthetic IPS e.max Press Indirect Restorations

Abstract:Introduction: Esthetic front teeth indirect restorations may be challenging for the clinician, as well as for the dental technician.\nAim: To describe an indication for the use of metal-ceramic post-and-cores in complex esthetic restoration cases. \nMaterials and methods: A 24-year-old Caucasian female presented with severely destructed endodontically treated 21 and 22. 12 had a big composite restoration, 14, 16, 24, and 26 were extracted. Teeth 25 and 27 were endodontically treated and severely destructed, as well. Post-and-core were made for teeth 21, 22, 25 and 27. The core part of the post-and-cores of 21 and 22 was covered with opaque porcelain to hide the metal color. The final restorations were two metal-ceramic bridges – X-15-X-17 and X-25-X-27 and six lithium disilicate IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Lichtenstein) crowns of 13, 12, 11, 21, 22 and 23. The opaque ceramics on the post-and-cores aided the esthetic effect and hid its metal color.\nResults: The opaque porcelain on the metal-ceramic post-and-cores hid the metal color, thus highly esthetic result was achieved.\nDiscussion: The esthetic treatment of dark and endodontically treated front teeth remains a challenge because dental materials should mimic the optical properties of natural teeth. Placing a layer of opaque ceramics on the core part is an excellent way of avoiding the esthetic drawbacks of a metal dowel-core, while preserving at the same time its strength. \nConclusion: Esthetic rehabilitation discolored front teeth requires a complex approach in order to provide a satisfactory outcome.




Title: Potential and Application of Vegetable Tanning Materials from Industrial Forest Plantation in Indonesia

Abstract:There are several numbers of forest management companies in Indonesia that produce wood as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, which has not been optimally utilized. Therefore, their potential and possibility of its application as a leather tanning is being explored. The research begins with with an investigation of the bark potential through data collection. Furthermore, water is used on the bark during the extraction in order to obtain an extract containing tannins for leather tanning. The tanning extract is used as a vegetable material with leather as the raw material. The results showed that A. mangium stem bark from Industrial Plantation Forest companies has the potential to be developed as a source of tannins for vegetable tanning agent. Arara Abadi Company can produce an average extract of 36,747,6357 m3/year. The yield of A. mangium bark extract was 27.06% with 32.91% tannin content when the extraction was carried out using microwave assistance. The results of the chemical analysis and physical examination of leather correspond to the Indonesian National Standard.




Title: Using Artificial Intelligence in Organisational, Administrative, and Institutional Work

Abstract:Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as the imitation of human intelligence by computer systems and machines with the use of applications such as machine learning, natural language processing, deep learning, and even expert systems. In administrative environments, AI can be used to automate routine tasks, analyse and predict information (e.g., performance data), develop social communication skills among employees, cut back on costs, and (most relevantly) increase the overall efficiency of operations. Thus, this study presents a critical discourse of AI as a subject in order to understand how it is being employed for administrative tasks in different organisations, drawing material from a wide range of peer-reviewed scholarly literature that seeks to shed light on AI processes and technologies. It also provides an outline of requirements and attributes that should be considered by organisations that are planning to use AI.




Title: VEGETABLE GROWTH MEDIATED BY SOIL MICROROGANISMS: ADVANTAGES OF THE DIVERSITY OF FUNGI, BACTERIA AND ACTINOMYCETES

Abstract:Microorganisms are the most important components of the soil. They constitute its living part and are responsible for the dynamics of transformation and development. The diversity of microorganisms that are found in a soil fraction fulfill determining functions in the transformation of the organic and inorganic components that are incorporated, in addition to their participation in plant nutrition. This allows us to understand its importance in the nutrition of plants when carrying out transformation processes even elements that can be assimilated by their roots. The humification of organic matter is a purely microbiological process. Updated information on the participation of microorganisms in plant nutrition is consulted in this review.




Title: IMPACT OF HYPERTENSION AND SMOKING UPON THE INFERTILITY AMONG URBAN WOMEN OF SINDH, PAKISTAN

Abstract:Infertility is defined as the major handicap that prevents the people to achieve the major goal of life which is having the children. The prevalence of infertility is increasing day by day in females all round the globe. In addition the rate of hyper tension and smoking addiction is also increasing with the same pace. The major endeavor of research was to analyze the prevalence of infertility prevailing high due to ever increasing hypertension and trend of smoking in the adjoining areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. The data was collected by specially designed questionnaire and biochemical tests profile of the female patients from various hospitals and testing labs of the Hyderabad and its surrounding areas after getting the consent from patients and was analyzed precisely. Statistical analysis of the data was done by software SPSS 20.0. The data analysis showed that out of the 90 infertile women 12 were suffering from hypertension or elevated blood pressure. The poor quality of the ova is highly associated with chronic type of hypertension. Furthermore, the data analysis showed that out of the 90 infertile women 10 were smokers. Cigarettes contain nicotine and high intake nicotine results in the fertilization delay caused due to early menopause and the production of hormone production in women resulting in the reduction of the fertility length.




Title: SURGICAL INSTRUMENTER ETHICS: A RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PATIENT AND THE TREATMENT TEAM

Abstract:Surgical Instrumentation in Colombia, is a profession regulated by Law 784 of 2002, whose main objective is the training of professionals in the use and knowledge of surgery teams, so that they integrate the surgical teams and be able to promote the improvement of the condition of patients\' lives. In Colombia, few studies have been carried out since the deontology of the professions, within which, surgical instrumentation is no exception, therefore, the purpose of this research is to describe the ethical and deontological aspects related to the profession of surgical instrumentation in Colombia. The review of the updated literature, allowed to conclude that surgical instrumentation, is a profession oriented to a specific function (administer and manage the surgical instruments) its ethical commitment has several senses: patient, treating team, operating room, profession, and society, what makes necessary the implementation of a code of ethics that establishes particular ethical guidelines for the profession, since, within the Law 1164 of 2007, generic principles are established that do not have a specific relationship with the responsibilities, duties, obligations and commitments of the professional In surgical instrumentation, for this, it is necessary to start from the particular tasks and responsibilities that are held before, during and after the surgical process.




Title: Comparison of two generations of systems for digital occlusion analysis

Abstract:Introduction: The modern concept of occlusion includes the relationship between teeth, masticatory muscles, and temporomandibular joints in function and dysfunction. Occlusion can be defined very simply: it means the contacts between teeth. Qualitative and quantitative methods are used to register and evaluate occlusal contacts. The T-Scan handpiece model was updated in 2015 as T-Scan Novus (software version 9.1) and the latest updated one being the T-Scan v10 software version introduced in 2018\nThe purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and results of two generations of systems - T-Scan III and T-Scan Novus.\nMaterial and methods: For the realization of the set goal the occlusion of a patient with the initials S.K. is examined with two systems. The patient is 43 years old with intact teeth, Angle\'s class I jaw relation. The study with T-Scan III was conducted in 2015, and with T-Scan Novus in 2019\nResults: The software of both systems uses a graphical interface, which transforms the data obtained during the recording of the occlusion as the model of the upper dentition of the patient in T-Scan III and the upper and lower dentition in T-Scan Novus. Registered occlusal contacts are illustrated as 2D and 3D images of different colours. The Graph force/time shows the power versus time from the first contact to the end of the movie. The timing Table displays the patient\'s total occlusal bite timing, and the force applied. T-Scan Novus software allows you to import digital fingerprint files of the upper and lower dentition in .stl format.\nConclusion: The software programme of the system version 9.1 provides better visualisation of dental arches making it much more informative than other versions. The T-Scan system allows fast and accurate registration and analysis of occlusion.




Title: Prevalence of Glucose Intolerance and its Associated Factors in District Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Abstract:Objectives: This research was aimed to analyze the IGT (impaired glucose tolerance) and occurrence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It was a population based survey to relate these disorders with obesity as well as the age and hypertension amongst different areas of District Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. Methodology: The study sample was 220participantsaged above 25 years consisting of 130 females and 90 males selected using randomized sampling technique. WHO criteria was followed and standard test was employed to diagnose IGT and diabetes. The questionnaire was designed to obtain the basic information from the study population regarding demographics, weight, age, height and waist hip ratio, blood pressure. The relationship between different variables was measured using Chi Square test. Results: The prevalence of IGT and NIDDM was calculated to be 34% in population. The prevalence of diabetes among females was observed to be 18.46% and 32.22% in males. Obesity, diabetes family history and elderly age were the factors associated with high diabetic rates. The higher WHR (Waist Hip Ratio) in both the genders was found to be highly related to diabetes as compared to the higher values of BMI. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus along with glucose tolerance (IGT and NIDDM) in Jamshoro was much high.




Title: Autoimmune bullous diseases associated with inflammatory bowel disease: A literature review

Abstract:Autoimmune bullous diseases (ABDs) are a series of blistering disorders of the skin and mucous membranes induced by pathogenic autoantibodies. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mainly comprises of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). This article reviews the cases of ABD associated with IBD. There have been more than 40 reported cases of concomitant linear IgA bullous disease (LABD) and UC. There have been 50 concomitant cases of ABD and IBD, apart from comorbidity of LABD and UC, in which 44% (22/50) were concomitant cases of bullous pemphigus (BP) and UC. Therefore, LABD and BP may be frequent ABDs in patients with IBD, and comorbidity of pemphigus and IBD may be relatively uncommon. ABD associated with IBD was estimated to be more predominant in patients with UC than in those with CD. IBD preceded ABD in almost all concomitant cases, excluding cases with nearly simultaneous diagnoses. The occurrence of ABD seems not to have an association with IBD activity.




Title: IPS e.max Press Crowns as a Treatment Solution for Patients with Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Abstract:Introduction: Rehabilitation of patients with amelogenesis imperfecta is a challenge because esthetics and function have to be restored, while keeping the treatment as conservative as possible.\nAim: To demonstrate a treatment solution option for patients with amelogenesis imperfecta. \nMaterials and methods: A 21-year-old Caucasian female presented with a mild case of amelogenesis imperfecta. She expressed concern about the esthetics of her central incisors and wanted to change only them. Tooth 11 had an extensive composite restoration done years ago, which lead to the withdrawal of the pulp. Teeth 11 and 21 were prepared for IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Lichtenstein) crowns. After removal of the old composite filling, tooth 11 was short, but due to the pulp withdrawal, its vitality was preserved. \nResults: The lithium disilicate crowns of 11 and 21 were cemented with white and opaque composite cement to mimic the color of the adjacent teeth.\nDiscussion: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition that affects the formation of the enamel matrix or the enamel mineralization process of the primary and permanent dentition. The esthetic treatment of dark front teeth is challenging, as the final restorations should resemble the optical properties of natural teeth.\nConclusion: Treatment of patients with amelogenesis imperfecta requires careful planning depending on the severity of the case.