Title: Allelopathic effects of para grass (Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf) extract on seed germination and seedling growth of Tainan 9 peanut

Abstract:The allelopathic effects of para grass were investigated on the seed germination and seedling growth of Tainan 9 peanut. This study determined the efficacy of solvent, the influence of solvents at different concentrations and the efficacy of extracts from different parts of para grass on germination and growth of peanuts. Para grass extract with varying concentrations (0 mg/ml., 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 15 mg/ml) was prepared using four solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water) from above-ground stems and roots. The experimental designs was 4x2x4 factorial in CRD with 4 replications. The result showed para grass extracts from the root part showed a higher significant inhibitory effect on the seed germination, shoot length, root length and seedling dry weight of Tainan 9 peanut compared to the extracts from the above-ground stems. Different extraction solvents caused differences in the inhibitory effect on the germination and seedling growth of Tainan 9 peanut and had an interaction with the extract concentration in all parameters measured. Methanol extraction solvent severely inhibited the seed germination of regardless of the extract concentrations. Whereas the para grass extracts using dichloromethane and hexane showed moderate inhibitory effects depending on the concentrations of 5–15 mg/ml respectively. It can be concluded that para grass extracts contain allelopathic compounds and can inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of Tainan 9 peanut. Methanol should be used as an extraction solvent if the inhibitory effect of the para grass extract is required.




Title: Rheological properties of quinoa flours (Chenopodium Quinoa Wild) obtained by abrasive milling

Abstract:The abrasive grinding stage has been used on spherical shaped grains to remove parts of the pericarp. The use of this process allowed to obtain two types of flours with different technological potential, while that hydrothermal treatment modified the rheological properties of these flours. The power model was used to determine both flow index (n) and consistency (k), showing a good fit (R2> 0.98) for all samples. The results showed a significant effect on behavior of flow index (n), shear rate greater than 200 s-1 were not appropriate to determine the index. Shear thickening behavior was observed on dispersions at 6% (w/v), whereas an increase in concentration leads to pseudoplastic behaviors. Newtonian behaviors were observed due to the heating/cooling cycle (25ºC – 95ºC – 25ºC) on dispersions at 6% (w/v). The effect of granulometry (125 ?m to 250 ?m) on the flow index was not significant. Hydrothermally treated flours did not develop high viscosity peaks compared to other flours. On the other hand, an increase in the concentration (6% w/v to 12% w/v) causes an increase in both the peak viscosity and set back value. Hydrothermal treatment can be used in flours to obtain dispersions of low viscosity but stable to heating and cooling cycles.




Title: Methodological foundations for the assessment of quality and safety in livestock and fishery products

Abstract:Improving the quality and appearance of a meat product by preserving its flavor and aroma depends on the different preservation processes that efficiently provide and maintain the structural characteristics and integrity of meat products. In food, quality is an important factor that determines the degree of consumer satisfaction based on attributes such as texture, smell, taste, appearance and composition, factors that can be seen with the naked eye, by lettering or labeling. However, the low microbial load and the absence of pathogens is a safety quality that all foods must have and that requires continuous evaluations or evaluations to avoid directly affecting the product and the consumer. In this order of ideas, this work aims to publicize the possible contaminations that fresh and processed meats may have directly or indirectly, and to give a critical look as to the methods of quantification of microorganisms so that in this way in the application of hazard analysis and critical control points may have essential tools for conducting tests in accordance with the microbiological criteria established for each type of food.




Title: Agronomic behavior of forage mixtures with Canavalia brasiliensis for the dry tropics

Abstract:The low supply and forage quality of the meadows/prairies in the dry tropics limits the productivity of livestock systems, which is why it was necessary to develop a research program that would promote the stability of this economic activity. The agronomic behavior of grasslands associated with Canavalia brasiliensis was studied in the California and Pinar farms in the El Patía Valley, Department of Cauca, Colombia. Keeping the rainy and dry seasons in mind, a randomized complete block experimental design was used. The Dichanthium aristatum was the Control treatment for the two (2) farms. At the California farm, the grasses were evaluated by themselves (Megathyrsus maximus cv. Mombasa, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Toledo, B. hybrid cv. Cayman) associated with C. brasiliensis. For the Pinar del Río farm, we evaluated Brachiaria decumbens, B. humidicola, B. dictyoneura, B. brizantha cv. Toledo associated with C. brasiliensis materials. The estimated variables we studied were: vigor, height, overall cover, percentage of weeds, production of dry material, loading capacity and incidence of pests and diseases. The results between the climate changes present differences between the two (2) farms. For the Pinar del Río farm, the best treatments in dry material production were the B. brizantha cv. Toledo associated with 4814 kg/ha, B. hybrid vs. associated to Cayman 2880 kg/ha and B. dictyoneura 3082 kg/ha. On the California farm, B. brizantha cv. Toledo and M. maximus cv. Mombasa by itself was associated with values of 3664; 4814; 4575 and 5066 kg/ha and was found to have the best results. The results demonstrated that using improved foraging in association with C. brasiliensis is a mixture that improves forage productivity in areas of the dry tropics.




Title: LA PEDAGOGIA POPULAR Y LAS EXPRESIONES MOTRICES EN LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE PAZ

Abstract:El texto es producto de las vivencias encarnadas en los procesos investigativos del grupo de investigacion MOLUFODE, junto a los habitantes y lideres de la Comuna Seis de la ciudad de Neiva. Esta experiencia escenifica el proceso de compresion de su realidad en un territorio de relaciones de conflictos donde los actores desde sus diferentes actos de violencia asumen su manera de ser, sentir y estar para construir acciones emprendedoras que generan una cultura de paz. Su realidad se desarrolla en un mundo tenebroso donde fluye la pobreza, la miseria, el desencanto, la inequidad y la injustica social, pero al trabajar la transformacion positiva de los conflictos y el buen vivir de sus habitantes se evidencio la generacion de vivencias con autonomia, participacion, democracia y solidaridad. Para ello, las expresiones motrices deportivas y ludicas orientadas mediante los postulados de la pedagogia popular, fueron\nimportantes para comprometerse y transformar su realidad.




Title: Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv Tunkahuan protein, part II: Rheological and functional properties

Abstract:Protein isolates and hydrolysates have countless applications in the food industry, due to their functional and nutritional properties. The rheological, and functional properties of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) were studied at pH 5 and pH 7. Dilatational modulus behavior versus surface pressure was evaluated, using the Frumkin-Lucassen model for QPI, which showed a good fit in the first part of the curve (before the plateau) evidencing the formation of the first interfacial layer. QPI gel formation was also evaluated at different concentrations (5%, 10% and 15%). Rheological measurements indicated that high protein concentrations and a pH of 5 significantly incremented gel point temperature. The emulsifying and foaming capacities of QPI were also evaluated at pH 5 and pH 7 (1% w/w). QPI demonstrated good functional properties at pH 5. Increasing the QPI concentration in formulation of the emulsion produced a greater thermal stability. Together, the results show the feasibility of using a quinoa protein isolate as an ingredient in functional foods.




Title: Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv Tunkahuan protein, part I: Physicochemical and kinetic adsorption properties

Abstract:Protein isolates and hydrolysates have countless applications in the food industry, due to their functional and nutritional properties. Physicochemical and kinetic adsorption properties of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) were studied at pH 5 and pH 7. It has a protein content of 15.8 ± 0.08 % (w /w), a lipid composition of 8.5± 0.06% (w /w), carbohydrate content of 66.38 ± 0.15 (w/w), moisture 6.9± 0.18% (w /w) and ash 2.4 ± 0.06% (w /w). The AAS results show that the QPI contains a high essential amino acid content, higher than the FAO requirement template in adults. The present study, the DSC curve showed an ?H of QPI (3.36 J/g) was lower. This may be due to the pH increment in the QPI extraction. The effect of QPI concentration, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentrations were evaluated in 5 mL of pH 7. The different adsorption mechanisms at 0.5% increase as protein concentration increases. These results proves that protein reordering and transition time increase as protein concentration increases, independent of pH. Together, the results show the feasibility of using a quinoa protein isolate as an ingredient in functional foods.




Title: THE EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT ON THE CHEMICAL-PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOIL IN LIVESTOCK AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS OF THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST

Abstract:A study was carried out whose main objective was the evaluation of the effect of management on the chemical-physical properties of Mollison soil dedicated for more than five (5) years to bovine production. The soils sampling were carried out both during the dry and rainy seasons, where the chemical characteristics of the pH, organic materials, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium potassium, sodium, the exchange capacity, boron, sulfur, copper, zinc and manganese as well as the physical characteristics such as texture, total porosity, bulk density, true density, volumetric moisture, saturation point, field capacity, temporary and permanent wilting point and soil resistance to penetration were studied in detail. The data was subjected to the T test for independent and related samples, to determine the differences between the land use systems and the time periods, respectively. The results indicated significant differences (P<0.05) depending on the use of the soil during the dry season with regards to the properties of pH and Zn between the SN and SSP, and during the rainy season those of the P between SM and SSP; in the Zn and the RSP between the SSP and the SN and SM. It was determined that the improvement of the naturalized grasslands to SM and SSP modified the chemical characteristics of the soil, at least when it came to the pH, P and Zn, which were important factors in the availability of nutrients and quality of forages, as well as establishing that these uses contribute to conserve and improve the soils properties from a sustainable point of view for this Region.




Title: Use of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca) to obtain single-cell protein (Pleurotus ostreatus)

Abstract:The objective of this work was to establish the protein yield and biological efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus on banana peel (Musa paradisiaca). The treatments developed were packed in bags of 250g of volume of substrate mixture. They were sterilized and inoculated with 2.5g of commercially purchased Pleurotus ostreatus seeds. The mycelial run time, biological efficiency, and protein yield of each of the treatments were evaluated. Finally, the best treatment was T4: temperature of 25 ° C and pH 4 with a quantification of biological efficiency of 0.75%. It is noted that there were no significant differences in the production of protein from Pleurotus ostreatus grown on banana peel. The results obtained also show how single-cell protein can be obtained from the husk of Musa paradisiaca through the edible fungus Pleorotus ostreatus, at different temperatures and different pH concentrations.




Title: Ecotourists' Motivations: Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage

Abstract:Motivations are important factors in understanding tourists’ behaviors in relation to destination choice; motivation relates to needs, goals, and preferences. Extensive research on this topic has been documented in the literature. However, there are few empirical studies on ecotourist cities in mountainous regions. Attention to tourists’ motivational factors in ecotourist cities is essential for determining their choices and needs when drawing future urban polies to develop ecotourist areas. In this study, the variables that influence tourists’ motivations, and their likelihood of revisiting those areas, were analyzed. The principal results show the significant role of accommodation locations and marketing in attracting visitors to ecotourist areas. These findings suggest that private and public sectors should invest in tourists’ residential development with a high level of accessibility and views. Also, tourist advertisements should be given more attention, especially among social media platforms.