Abstract:Among various harmful constituents of coal dust, heavy metals stand prominent and their effects on miner’s health are not hidden from anyone. Present study evaluated the mean concentrations of heavy metals under study at different mining sites of Punjab Pakistan. This was an environmental cohort study where 100 miners were recruited, questions related to respiratory health were asked, and Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the joint association between heavy metals concentration and respiratory symptoms. We found mean concentrations of metals under study followed the decreasing trend from iron being highest to Cadmium being the lowest in all six mines with following sequence(Fe>Cu>Zn>Cr>Ni>Cd). As far as respiratory ailments were concerned Nickel was significantly correlated with the increasing risks of asthma (r=0.568**), excessive mucus production(r=0.475**), cough with sputum ( r=0.509**),chronic bronchitis (r=0.475**),pain in throat (r=0.465**),nasal congestion(r=0.377**), dyspnea (0.409**) ,wheezing (r=0.386*) and nasal irritation (r=0.416**).Similarly iron oxides exposure through coal dust was responsible for significant increase in asthma(r=0.317**), excessive mucus production(r=0.326**),chronic bronchitis (r=0.325*),pain in throat (r=0.303*) and nasal congestion (r=0.325*).Furthermore a positive significant association was present between faster breathing with copper (r=0.275**) and cadmium (r=0.363**). Asthma, excessive mucus production, chronic bronchitis, pain in throat, chest tightness, wheezing, dyspnea, phlegm, nasal irritation, episodic cough were showing a significant increase with increasing levels of cadmium and copper in coal dust
Abstract:The appropriate application of inhalers requires sufficient peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rate which might be cumbersome to achieve for some patients. Ambulatory adult asthma patients were enrolled in the study. The peak inspiratory flow rate was measured using the In-Check Dial measurement device. The patient‘s PIF rate was measured several times by recallibrating the device to mimic flow resistance of 3 different types of inhalers: 1) Diskus, 2) Turbuhaler, 3) Metered-dose inhaler (MDI). The patient underwent spirometry before and after the inhalation of a short-acting bronchodilator. From 100 asthma patients Diskus type inhalers were used by 20, Turbuhaler by 36, and MDI by 63 patients. 17 patients used other types of inhalers. Mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate was 406.99 l/min, mean forced expiratory ratio (FEV1%) – 87.53. Mean PIF rate using the In-Check Dial device simulating MDI flow resistance was 112 l/min, Diskus – 88.72 l/min, Turbuhaler – 75.86 l/min. 99% of patients reached the required minimal PIF rate (30 l/min) using all 3 types of inhalers. 27% of all participants didn’t reach the optimal PIF rate (>60 l/min) through the Turbuhaler type of inhaler, among them 11% were regularly using Turbuhaler inhalers. PIF rate was significantly lower in patients with severe and uncontrolled asthma. There was a positive correlation between PIF rate and FEV1, PEF values. A significant portion of adult asthma patients cannot reach the optimal PIF rate which might lead to ineffective treatment.
Abstract:Acetonic plant extracts Lantana camara, Ruta chalepensis, Rhazya stricta and Heliotropium bacciferum were tested in the laboratory for their insecticidal and repellent effectiveness to red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Four concentrations of each plant extract, 200, 300,400 and 500 ppm were tested. Adult beetles were exposed to plant extracts for 6 days. Percentage of mortality was recorded after 2, 4 and 6 days from exposure. The repellent effect of the previous plant extracts was also, studied. All of these plant extracts showed toxicities against red flour beetle. High mortality of T. castaneum was achieved by L camara and Ruta chalepensis at the concentration of 500 ppm for adult beetles. The rest of plant extracts increased mortality with increasing of concentrations. Of four plant extracts, the effect of L. camara and R. chalepensis were relatively more pronounced with LC50 values of 202.99 and 242, 95 ppm, respectively, after two days from treatment. Corresponding LC50 values after six days exposure for adult , values were 112.63 and 116, 75., respectively. The rest of plant extracts gives 172.48 and 289.67 ppm for Rhazya stricta and Heliotropium bacciferum respectively. Moreover, L. camara and R. chalepensis exhibited high repellency 100% and 92.08 % at concentration of 500 ppm against T. castaneum adults. The application of these extracts could be promising in protecting of stored date and grains against the attack of T. castaneum specially extracts of L. camara and R. chalepensis.
Abstract:Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important crop for cereal research. In the present study, two barley genotypes were used the wild-type (Steptoe) and the mutant (Az12). An experiment was conducted using 15N-tracing method to determine accumulation, uptake, translocation and reduction of nitrate, together with transport of reduced 15N in intact N-starved seedlings.The N-depleted seedlings were exposed to a nutrient solution containing nitrate and nitriteand plants were sampled at each (14L/10D) cycles throughout 38 h. The two genotypes utilized 15NO3- and accumulated it as reduced 15N, predominately in the shoots. Also for both genotypes root contribution increased during L/D cycles and decreased during the subsequent light cycle. Shoot nitrate accumulation in Az12 was higher than in Steptoe. In both genotypes xylem transport of reduced15N was far exceeded the downward phloem transport.
Abstract:Background. Ibuprofen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The use of this drug family is usually associated with gastric problems. The unique enteric-coated formulas of ibuprofen significantly reduced its side effects which make it relatively safe and most frequently used. Aim. In this study we aimed to outline the impact of ibuprofen on two important metals that are involved in hair growth, zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Methods. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups. The first group served as control and treated with saline. The second group was challenged orally with 50 mg/kg ibuprofen daily, for 60 consecutive days. Serum levels of Zn, Fe, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were estimated. Fe and Zn levels in 24 hours urine, liver tissue and stool were determined. Results. Seventy percent of treated rats showed alopecia on both ventral and dorsal sides. Serum levels of Zn, Fe and TIBC were significantly decreased in treated animals. Liver homogenate and 24- hours urine showed marked reduction in Zn contents and significant increase in Fe residues. Concentration of Zn and Fe did not change in stool. Ferritin level was significantly increased in ibuprofen-treated rats. Conclusions. Ibuprofen decreases the availability of both elements for hair growth possibly through extrahepatic utilization of zinc while increasing excretion and tissue retention of iron. It might be advisable to follow Fe and Zn medications with those under long-term ibuprofen treatment especially who suffer hair fall, and have stomach intolerance to other NSAIDs.
Abstract:The effect of high dose of lithium carbonate on rat brain free amino acid kinesis and brain protein content, was studied at different treatment periods. Due to possible use of high doses of anti depressants, as, patients many times do without reference advice, we tried perusal of lithium carbonate high doses (150 mg/kg/d) on four groups of rats, 6/each. They were classified according to duration into, a control group, given saline by same volume and duration (group 1), acute study group, given single dose, left for 2 hours (group 2), sub-acute study group, given a dose each 3 days for 2 weeks(group 3) and a chronic study group, given dose each 3 days for a month(group 4). Brain content of individual free amino acids, ɣ- aminobutyrate (GABA), glycine, tryptophan, aspartate, methionine, tyrosine, phenyl alanine, branched chain amino acids and proline was significantly decreased after 2 hours, 2 weeks and one month of administration. Correspondingly, hydroxyl and dibasic amino acids were increased. This change was accompanied by increased phosphate buffer-insoluble brain protein fraction after two hours of administration, with slow decrease, till nearing normalcy after a month of therapy. This action could be explained as an anabolic effect of lithium on brain protein, which possibly assumes a role of lithium treatment in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, with a modulatory action on nitrogen balance, activated amidation, hydroxylation and peptidase activation. These pathways, together, possibly published for the first time, elucidating a novel therapeutic potential of lithium in bipolar disorders.
Abstract:Social media is the process where communication and interaction between individuals all over the world takes place. Like all different kinds of technology social media has many advantages but it also has many disadvantages. Saudi Arabia is one of the largest economies and population in the world. The internet users in Saudi Arabia are around 30 million individuals in 2018. This large number of users represents the best choice for market and business not only for legal but also for illegal business-like drug smuggling. In this paper, we try to give some ideas about some drug smuggling cases through social media and the effort of Saudi Arabian Government to control this phenomenon.
Abstract:Introduction\nThis study aimed to epidemiologically examine elderly patients aged ≥65 years who were admitted to the emergency department during a 1-year period due to trauma and fracture detected using radiological imaging.\nMaterials and Methods\nWe enrolled 300 elderly patients admitted to the emergency department of the Medeniyet University Hospital due to trauma between 1 September 2014 and 1 September 2015. We examined patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, radiological images, history of fracture, chronic diseases and drugs used. Finally, attained data were analysed using statistical tests and compared with the relevant literature.\nResults\nOf the 300 patients, 75.7% (n = 227) were females and 24.3% (n = 73) were males. Falls were the leading reason for injuries in this study. As age increased, the number of females, admissions to emergency department and long bone fractures increased (P ˂ 0.05). Furthermore, 62.7% (n = 188) of all patients were discharged and 37.3% (n = 122) were hospitalised to clinics.\nDiscussion\nIn the elderly population using multiple drugs, gender and comorbid diseases are crucial factors related to morbidity and mortality. Thus, family members should be informed about protective measures to decrease multiple drug use as well as to prevent the deterioration of the life comfort of patients and the emergence of possible new cases.
Abstract:The morphological description of the nine most distinctive and rare types of soil infusoria has been given here (Oxytrichaimmemorata Alekperov, 1984, Histriculusmuscorum Kahl, 1932 Urostylagrandis Ehrenberg, 1838 Phialinavermicularis (Müller, 1786), Dyptusfalciformis Kahl 19, Trithigmostomasteini (Blochmann, 1895) , Zosterodasyscantabrica Fernandez-Leborans and Alekperov 1996, Nassulaterricola Foissner 1989, Frontoniadisciformis Alekperov, Obolkina, Wilbert 2012 ). They were found in the SamurYalama National Park located in the Samur Devechi Lowland. The descriptions are made on the basis of an in vivo study and some preparations impregnated with silver.
Abstract:The persistence patterns of the pesticides Malathion, fenitrothion and deltamethrin in fruits of tomato and cucumber were determined. Residues were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Results confirmed that the initial deposit of Malathion and fenitrothion on and in the cucumber, fruits (7.603 and 9.043 µg/g) were higher than on and in tomato fruits (5.390 and7.110 µg/g), respectively. Data also indicated that the initial residue of deltamethrin on and in the tomato fruits (3.660 µg/g) was higher than the initial deposit of deltamethrin on and in the cucumber fruits (3.643 µg/g). The consumable safety time was found to be 10 and 14 days after application on tomato and cucumber. This was found to be enough to reduce the residue below the maximum residue limits (MRL). However, Malathion, fenitrothion and deltamethrin appeared to have relatively longer persistence on cucumber fruits with, t1/2 of 1.98, 2.04 and 1.77 days, than on tomato fruits with, 1.41, 1.41 and 0.4 respectively.