Abstract:Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is an economically important species in Asian countries including, Korea, China, and Japan. Because of a recent decline in the natural stock, the interest in the aquaculture production of this species is increasing. Therefore, the analyses of genetic variation between the wild-type and hatchers production are necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this valuable marine resource. A total of 429 artificially cultured sea cucumber from six different season populations were analyzed for 10 microsatellite loci. A total of 847 different alleles were found including many unique alleles. The average number of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.508 and 0.739, respectively. All populations showed a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A phylogenetic tree revealed two distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by the scattered sea cucumber at the scattering time population and the second cluster was consisted of the subpopulations of the scattered sea cucumber in the summer as well as at the endpoint populations. The scattered sea cucumber at scattering time population showed a large number of alleles per locus, and a smaller number of the most common alleles, suggesting a higher genetic diversity in this population, these results provide basic information on natural population genetic structure of S. japonicus in Korea.
Abstract:Genus Drassodes Westring, 1851 belongs to the family Gnaphosidae and consists of ten species distributed in several habitats in Turkey. Among them Drassodes bifidus, Drassodes lacertosus and Drassodes serratichelis were collected in different locations of Cappadocia (Nevşehir) and studied by cytogenetically using an air drying method according to Pekár and Král (2001). In this method, hypotonic application, fixation and cleavage with acetic acid were carried out respectively. As a result, diploid chromosome numbers and sex chromosomes for both species were notified in males as 2n= 22 (20 telocentric autosomes and two telocentric gonosomes namely X1 and X2). Relative lengths of chromosomes were decreased gradually in size. All the species were possessed chiasmatic meiosis and characterized by a model of ten autosomal bivalents with one or two chiasmata during prophase I. These results are important in evaluating the conservative cytogenetic structure of the genus Drassodes.
Abstract:Disasters impact and disrupt large and small businesses among other community elements such as housing, infrastructure and public services. Flooding is one of the most common and costliest disasters throughout the world and Canada and they impact a significant number of businesses annually. The summer 2013 Calgary Flood was recorded as the costliest disasters in Canada in which a great deal of businesses including small businesses in downtown Calgary were severely impacted. This study is based on data collected from a sample of small businesses in food services and drinking place sector that were impacted by the Calgary flooding. The main goal of this study was to understand and examine if and how business characteristics (size, age, loan and business status), risk reduction and support measures (financial aid and insurance), disaster preparedness planning, extent of direct impacts (damage to business premises, equipment and total impact), and extent of indirect impacts (disruption to supply chain, logistics, lifeline and roads) affected business functional recovery (as measured by time to restart the business) and economic recovery (as measured by post disaster profitability) using binary logistic regression. \nFindings reveal that while most of the indirect impact factors (except lifeline) have significant relations with business functional recovery, only damage to business premise (among the direct impacts) has significant relation with business functional recovery. Additionally, it was found that only preparedness and age of business (among the business characteristics) have significant relationship with business economic recovery
Abstract:Background and purpose: Spasticity in the hands and a wrist is a major problem in the management of stroke patients. Recent studies indicated that shock wave therapy (SWT) is an effective method for treating spasticity. Different energy levels have been used in the previous studies for treatment of spasticity without any proven clinical benefits for certain energy level over the other. So, the purpose of the study was to investigate and compare the effect of two different energy levels of radial SWT on spastic muscles of the hand and wrist in patients affected by stroke. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients having upper limb spasticity post stroke were recruited for the study from Out-patient Department in Governmental Hospitals at Taif Region, KSA. Patients were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) received the low energy (2 bars intensity) radial SWT while group (B) received the medium energy (4 bars intensity) radial SWT. Spasticity of wrist and fingers was evaluated using Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) of the wrist was evaluated using digital goniometer and pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: there was a significant decrease in MAS scores of the wrist flexors and fingers flexors muscles post treatment for both groups (P=0.001). The ROM was significantly increased post treatment from (48.46±2.09) to (70.02±3.23) for group (A) and from (49.15±1.95) to (79.13±3.42) for group (B). Also VAS scores was a significantly decreased in both groups post treatment. Conclusion: Radial SWT is an effective therapeutic tool in reducing flexor spasticity of the wrist and hand in patients with stroke. Moreover, the medium energy level (4 bars intensity) was superior to the low energy level (2 bars intensity) in regarding to the measured treatment outcomes.
Abstract:This paper deals with study the maximal regularity and the existence of solutions of semilinear system perturbed by nonlinear terms with time delays in case where the principal operators are unbounded operators. The approach we use is the construction of the fundamental solution and natural assumptions such as the Lipschtiz continuity of nonlinear terms.
Abstract:Understanding critical literacy as the ability to emerge the domain of critical reading and writing to the transforming action of the environment, this study aims to identify, on the one hand, the positioning of teachers of primary education in initial training to different social problems and on the other hand, dealing with the diagnosis treatment of otherness and social invisibility in the educational intervention. By formulating these objectives, it aims to answer the narrative ways of future teachers who achieve satisfactory levels of literal and inferential comprehension and critical comprehension of different social and historical stories about four outstanding social problems: social injustice, equality gender, personal and social identity, and democratic conflict. By applying qualitative methods of content analysis, the ideas and propositions of narratives generated by students have been reduced to their coding into three pre-established categories of analysis and measures in levels of progression: technical-exclusive perspective, socio-assimilationist perspective and critical-transformative perspective. These categories have been mapped to three curricular concepts: traditional, maximalist and criticism. The results report the persistence of traditional reading practices oriented to literal and inferential comprehension, and to a lesser extent, criticism of social discourse, assigning the participants to dominant traditional curricular perspectives, to the detriment of critical positions and transforming students. The data obtained confirm the need to implement specific programs for teacher training to acquire critical skills, from the concept of criticality as an indispensable element in identifying ideologies, discourses and hegemonic conceptions of reality for social action in educational global and inclusive contexts.
Abstract:The post embryonic developmental stages of Marpissa bengalensis (Araneae; Salticidac),\nthe 2nd most abundant predatory species in citrus orchard were collected from the experimental\nfruit garden, department of Horticulture, located at the campus of University of Agriculture\nFaisalabad, were studied. The life cycle was observed in the laboratory, which started from egg\nsac collected from the field alongwith gravid female and released into the spider cages. The\nincubation period ranged from 5-15 days. The average eggs hatched were 23.8 eggs/cocoon and\nhatching % under laboratory conditions was recorded as 73.18 %. The average duration with\nwhich spiderlings span on their mothers back was 7 days. An overall, mean duration of 3rd\nspiderling stage was 7.46 days of all spiderlings hatched from 8 cocoons. At the 4th spiderling\nstage, the average duration was 10.23 days. In the 5th spiderling stage, the spiderling spent an\naverage of 19.82 days. The 6th and 7th spiderlings stages lasted a total of 23.14 days and 25.86\ndays respectively. During 8th spiderling stage, the duration was maximum and it was recorded\n28.08 days. On average, from hatching to adult stage, the spiderlings lasted 137 days to attained\nmaturity. Greater mortality was observed in the 3rd and 4th spiderling stages, decreasing\nthereafter and reaching zero in the 8th spiderling stage
Abstract:The mountainous-xerophyte vegetation encompasses strongly torn by relief, rocky slopes, and talus of the territory of the mountains. They are of little use for pasture use. Can serve as a transitional pastureland for grazing after the use of winter pastures and before rising to summer pastures. It is the base for collection of medicinal and technical plants, plant materials with the purpose of fixing eroded slopes, creating haymaking meadows and improving pastures.
Abstract:Sann-Jhong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription. SJKJT consists of 17 species of herbs and has been used for much solid cancer in Taiwan. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death for women in worldwide. SJKJT could inhibit the MCF-7 cells through decreasing the expression of Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF1R), then to block the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The present study focused on the effects of SJKJT in the Her2/3 and Ras/Raf/MERK/ERK pathway in human breast cancer cells MCF-7. The effects of SJKJT on the protein expressions of Her2/3, Ras, Raf, MERK, ERK, LC3-II and β-actin in the MCF-7 cells were examined by western blot analysis. The results showed that SJKJT can inhibit the protein expressions of Her2/3, MERK and ERK, but increase LC3-II in MCF-7 cells. These findings indicated that SJKJT could inhibit the MCF-7 cells. One of the molecular mechanisms may be through decreasing the protein expressions of Her-2 and Her-3, then to block the MERK/ ERK signaling pathway; the other may be through increasing LC3-II to induce autophagy. The traditional Chinese medicine prescription SJKJT may become a possible therapy option for human breast cancer.
Abstract:Background: Premature luteinization (PL) has been suggested to have deleterious effects on pregnancy outcome in assisted reproduction. In this study it was aimed to observe the effects of ganirelix (GnRH-a) on controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (COS/IUI) cycles in women who had PL in their first failed cycles. Methods: A total of 114 patients were enrolled to our study. 58 women assigned to the control group and 56 patients who were assigned to receive GnRH-a were enrolled to the study. Patients with PL who failed in the first IUI cycle were selected for the study. Recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) therapy was started on day 3. In women assigned to the control group, treatment was continued up to the day of hCG administration. In patients who were assigned to receive GnRH- a, ganirelix was added when the follicle was > 14 mm. The pregnancy rates and prevalence of premature luteinization were assessed. Results: The mean serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and premature LH level were significantly lower in the ganirelix group. However, the mean serum and progesterone (P) levels and the rate of premature P rise were similar between the groups. Although PL was less encountered in ganirelix group, the pregnancy rates per cycle was comparable (24.1% vs. 32.1%, P = 0.48). Conclusion: GnRH-a resulted in less premature luteinization, due to the suppression of endogenous LH production, however, it had no effect on premature P rise and the pregnancy rates were not different between the groups.