Title: Mineralogical compositions of parent soil and windblown sediment collected from southern Tunisia

Abstract:Automatic stations of meteorological data recording and windblown sediment collecting were installed in the site of Douz (33°27.7\' N, 9°20.8\' E), a southern Tunisian arid region located on the northern border of the Sahara. During this field experiment, eight filters loaded with suspended particles, in addition to parent soil samples, were collected. When comparing the mineralogical composition of both the fine fractions of soil and windblown sediment, results showed that, although a difference on gypsum and salt particles rate was observed, are relatively close and correspond to the known mineralogical cortege of soils of the great western erg region.

Title: Assessment of fungal community causing cassava root rot disease in Vietnam and screening of antagonistic bacteria from from cassava cultivated soil

Abstract:Aim: Cassava is a crop of the 21st century and a \"food for the poor\", as it’s becoming a versatile crop that meets the priorities of developing countries, towards the global economy and the challenge of climate change. However, in recent years, cassava has suffered from some serious diseases, amongst them, tuber and root rot diseases almost appear throughout the cassava growing areas in Vietnam, causing a lot of damage to the farmers. Therefore, this study aims to isolate and assessment of fungal community causing cassava tuber and root rot disease in cassava in Vietnam. Beside this, antagonistic bacteria against these pathogens were isolated from cassava cultivated fields and identified. \nMethods and Results: From 37 roots and cassava cultivated soil samples collected at different provinces in the North, Central and Southern regions of Vietnam, the fungal strains causing tuber rot and root rot disease were isolated and identified. Especially, some fungal strains showed very strong pathogenicity, including: Phytopythium helicoides VCCM 34007; Fusarium proliferatum VCCM 34005; Lichtheimia sp. VTCC 930027, Fusarium solani VCCM 34006, Neurospora sitophila VCCM 34008 and Cunninghamella elegans VTCC 930028. Also from the above 37 samples, 56 strains of bacteria possessed medium to high antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens were isolated. Among these antagonists, 15 strains inhibit simultaneously 2-3 fungal pathogens. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular identification, 7/15 strains (46.7%) of the isolated antagonistic bacteria belonged to Bacillus genus, 5/15 strains (33.4%) belonged to genus Streptomyces, and the remaining 3 strains belonged to genera Burkholderia, Paenibacillus and Arthrobacter.\nConclusion: The cassava has an important role in the world economy, especially in Vietnam. This research helps to better understand fungi that are causing cassava tuber and root rot disease in Vietnam. Moreover, the isolated antagonistic bacteria can be used as bio-control agent against these fungal pathogens for controlling cassava disease, increasing productivity, output, and added value for cassava as a result. By using biological control of plant disease we will take part in environmental protection, making a safe and sustainable agriculture in Vietnam.


Abstract:Introduction: A pathophysiological hallmark of hypertrophic scarring is the overactivation of fibroblasts, which results in their proliferation along with overproduction of the extracellular matrix. The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1) is reported to mediate fibroblast activation in multiple clinical conditions; however, its role in the post-burn hypertrophic skin scar formation is unknown.\nObjective: This study aimed to investigate the role of KCa3.1 and anti-fibrotic potential of senicapoc, a KCa3.1 inhibitor, in post-burn hypertrophic scar formation.\nMethods: Cell proliferation and expression of hypertrophic markers were investigated in fibroblasts obtained directly from patients within 1–2 weeks of suffering third-degree burns who subsequently developed post-burn hypertrophic scars. The anti-fibrotic effects of senicapoc via KCa3.1 inhibition were assessed using in vitro fibroblasts and in vivo burn models in mice. \nResults: Increased cell proliferation and expression of hypertrophic markers were identified in burn-wound fibroblasts obtained from patients. The targeted inhibition of KCa3.1 by senicapoc significantly reduced cell proliferation along with the expression of hypertrophic markers in burn-wound fibroblasts from patients. In addition, the anti-scarring effect following senicapoc administration was confirmed using murine burn models in terms of molecular, histological, and visual aspects.\nConclusions: This study demonstrated altered cellular and molecular responses of skin fibroblasts from patients after third-degree burns. In addition, this study confirmed an anti-fibrotic effect of senicapoc in both in vitro within burn fibroblasts and in vivo within murine burn models. These results suggest that selective inhibition of KCa3.1 by senicapoc has therapeutic potential to prevent hypertrophic scar formation following burns.

Title: Needlestick and Sharps Injuries among Nurses: The Role of Occupational and Psychosocial Risk Factors

Abstract:BackgroundAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO), the estimated number of healthcare professionals from the Eastern Mediterranean region exposed to needlestick (NSI) and sharps injuries (SI) contaminated with HBV, HCV, and HIV are 43,000, 18,000, and 170; respectively. Accordingly, there is a crucial need to evaluate infection control procedures and education among nurses and their associated factors. DesignA cross sectional design was utilized to conduct the current study.MethodsThe study was conducted in 16 hospitals located in the five regions of Riyadh (north, east, west, central, and south). Convenience sampling was applied in this study. Results Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that having work-related stress (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.31?? 3.26), working 10 hours or more per shift compared to less than 10 hours (OR=3.74; 95% CI: 2.39-5.86), and experiencing family crisis within the last 12 months (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.06??2.63) were all factors independently associated with experiencing an NSI/SI.Conclusion Injuries caused by needlesticks and sharps can be prevented by implementing precautions and providing support services to mitigate stress and provide necessary counseling when needed. providing training programs and reinforcing the practical skills of nurses in infection control and facilitating the reporting of injuries is recommended.

Title: Microorganisms as a sustainable control strategy: challenges and successes of biocontrol in the department of Cesar - Colombia.

Abstract:They are commonly related to microorganisms with infectious diseases, pathologies and outbreaks that relate to health, although a large number of microbes are pathogens, there is another large proportion that generates benefits in different ways. Microorganisms have been used in the industry for different processes for many years, including biological control, however, at present it is imperative to implement sustainable strategies that guarantee the stability of the environment, using living organisms or part of them to solve problems of contamination, pests and the presence of pathogens. The objective of this review was to compile information available in indexed journals on the biocontrol strategies used in Colombia, in order to compile the content and update it, including sectors such as food, industrial, agricultural, livestock, environmental, among others. Consult scientific databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, Redalyc and Scielo, free available information was downloaded and relevant material for this article was extracted. In general terms, the implementation of biological control strategies in Colombia are still few, despite the fact that positive results have been obtained in terms of environmental control and sustainability; the agricultural sector is the one that most registers biocontrol strategies, followed by the environmental one.

Title: The Importance of Training in Empowering Women Leaders Economically, A comparative Study between Edinburgh Napier University in Britain and Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University in Saudi Arabia

Abstract:This study deals with the importance of training in empowering women leaders economically and comparing the Princess Nourah University of KSA and the University of Edinburgh Napier in UK. As well as the impact of economic empowerment of women on the development process as one of the entrances to achieving the 2030 vision in the KSA.\nThis study came as the KSA is currently going through an economic revolution that grows in renewed directions, keeps pace with Saudi economic development requirements, and corresponds to the needs of society. This study also tries to benefit from women\'s activity in state institutions by developing them economically in all areas that require activating the role of women in them. This study also came in line with the state’s directives to activate Saudi women\'s role in economic development, as a reflection of the support for the role of women in the necessity of changing their conditions and discussing themselves and their higher status and status in society.\nThe study found that continuous training for women at the university is a prerequisite for developing their professional capabilities and participation in the labor market, reflecting positively on increasing economic growth rates in the country. Also, there is a strong positive correlation between the challenges women face and the trend towards training and economic empowerment. The study shows that women\'s economic empowerment has a significant role in achieving economic stability, promoting social justice between the sexes, raising the standard of living, increasing family income, and women\'s independence. This positively affects the increase in economic growth rates in the KSA.

Title: Foodborne Diseases: A Constant Epidemiological Surveillance Challenge in Colombia

Abstract:Foodborne diseases are one of the problems that put the world\'s population at risk in terms of public health; They are based on the intake of food products, additives, spices or water contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms or chemical substances whose ingested quantity affects the health of consumers. The increase in population and the absence of stable policies to combat extreme poverty are one of the social factors that most influence the development of food-borne diseases; Therefore, phenomena such as migration and extreme poverty are directly related to these diseases. The objective of this review was to compile updated information from indexed databases on the current problems of epidemiological surveillance of foodborne diseases in Colombia, to delimit the epidemiological and political challenges that such health effects represent. Scientific databases (SCOPUS, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCIELO, REDALYC and PUBLINDEX) were consulted in order to obtain information on the epidemiological outbreaks that have occurred in recent years in Colombia, the epidemiological surveillance that has been carried out in the same and the results of prevention and control by the food industries, processors and marketers. 24 scientific articles published in indexed / homologated journals in Colombia were used, it was found that the most significant outbreaks in public health are those caused by Salmonella sp., E. coli, Clostridium sp., Yersinia sp., Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter sp. It is concluded that in Colombia it is necessary to adopt normative sets that regulate the responsibility of food producing and marketing companies in terms of food safety, that there be monitoring of epidemiological surveillance programs and implementation of programs of sanitation to establishments, given that great Some food contamination occurs during processing through surface cross contamination. It is highlighted that in Colombia the phenomenon of Venezuelan migration has favored the spread, re-emergence and appearance of pathogenic microorganisms in food with the capacity to generate outbreaks in the population.

Title: Incidence and control of Listeria monocytogenes in fishery products

Abstract:The target of the present work was exploring the incidence of listeria species in different fish products and to evaluate the inhibitory impact of chitosan coating on Listeria monocytogenes and sensory attributes of basa fillets (Pangasius bocourti). Total number of 319 samples (frozen, smoked and canned) fish products obtained from local fish (Giza markets- Egypt) over 2 years. The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in the first year was 13.7% while other listeria species was 6.8% with total incidence 20.6% , while in the second year the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes was 0% while other listeria species was 9.09 % with total incidence 9.09 %. Morovere inhibitory effcts of chitosan coating was evaluated experimentally to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in basa fillets (Pangasius bocourti). Four groups of fish basa fillets were prepared with experimental inoculation of Listeria monocytogenes then three groups were coated with chitosan (1, 1.5 and 2%) beside control group. Incorporation of the highest concentration of chitosan 2% revealed significant inhibitory effect on experimentally inoculated basa fillets (Pangasius bocourti) with Listeria monocytogenes. Moreover, sensory panel scores of chitosan coated basa fillets show no significant difference between treated and control group expect for raw samples treated with 2% chitosan which show slimmy textute to some extent. \nIn a conclusion chitosan could achieve benefits for the industry and for the safety of consumer. Therefore, Industry of food may use chitosan concentrations as a natural source of antioxidants, antibacterial and extending shelf life in fish processing.

Title: Ultrasound Study of Carotid Arteries of Diabetic Patients

Abstract:Background: Previously it has been explored that the condition of carotid arteries plays an important role in determining the performance of brain cells. Diabetic patients are at high risk of being atherosclerotic in their arteries. So this led the foundation of current research study with the purpose to observe the Carotid Arteries in adult diabetic patients of Bahawalpur city in order to diagnose the condition of these arteries because diabetes carries one of risk factors that can cause carotid arteries atherosclerosis which occurs when lipoprotein accumulates in the intima of the artery and as atherosclerosis progresses it may completely occlude the artery lumen or plaque may rupture sending thrombus more distal site. \nResults: 100 such patients were enrolled in the study and were examined by using Siemens Sonoline G 60S ultrasound machine with linear probe of 7-10 MHz in B-mode. Both type-1 and type-2 diabetic patients were included in this study. The study was carried in Bahawal Victoria Hospital from 11/2018 to 11/2019. All the patients were examined to scan the carotid arteries in the supine position with knee support. Intima-Media-Thickness was observed for each case. It was noticed that its maximum value in carotid arteries increased with age and duration and more specifically in plaques conditions it also show positive correlation with Doppler parameters. \nConclusion: The findings of this research study conclude that diabetic patients are at high risk of being atherosclerotic in carotid arteries that may lead to ischemic attack or brain stroke which can be said to have affected the activity performance of certain brain cells.

Title: Actividad del complejo enzim�tico exoglucanasa producido por cepas f�ngicas aisladas en dos bosques secos tropicales del Valle del Cesar

Abstract:The main plant polymers subject to microbial degradation in soil habitats include cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been widely investigated in recent years, due to its specificity, therefore, highly cell-producing organisms are required to intervene in said catalytic process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of exoglucanases produced by strains of cellulolytic fungi obtained from litter provided by plant species in two fragments of two tropical dry forests of the Cesar Valley. This research was carried out in two phases, the first corresponded to the analyzes, samples and other procedures that were carried out in situ in each ecosystem, the second, corresponded to the laboratory procedures such as taxonomic identification, quantification of the Exoglucanase Activity of the strains on filter paper and the determination of the enzymatic activity in different culture media. 24 strains of cellulolytic fungi were identified and grouped into 6 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium, Crysosporium and Nigrospora) in the ecosystem of the reed beds, and 13 strains grouped in the genera (Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusariumrospora and Cladosporium). The strains selected according to the enzymatic activity in the media with different substrates were Aspergillus sp. MC09, Aspergillus sp. MC14, Penicillium sp. EB04 and Fusarium sp. EB21. The strain that expressed the best yields in the production of exoglucanases was Penicillium sp. EB04, which produced the highest AE value (0.174 IU / ml) at the shortest time (day 16) in nutrient medium, as well as expressed the highest AE value in Mandels medium at day 20 (0.172 IU / ml).