Title: The Lived Experience of Family Caregivers of Persons With Serious Mental Illness In Saudi Arabia

Abstract:The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of family caregivers of persons with serious mental illnesses at home. A hermeneutic phenomenology study was utilized. Data were collected via purposive and snowball sampling. In-depth phone calls and semi-structured interviews of 15 family caregivers using open-ended questions were used. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analyzed using Diekelmann’s process and guided by Ray\'s Transcultural Caring Dynamics Model. Findings identified an overall theme of “the dynamic of an endless cycle of care” and three relational themes: (a) development of caring experiences, (b) living culture values and beliefs, and (c) meaning of care. The findings informed the development of culturally appropriate systems through an understanding of families’ experiences from a cultural perspective to value patient and family-centered care, social support, and enhanced community mental health care.

Title: Enhancing agricultural sustainability through plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and nanotechnology

Abstract:The challenges facing the global agricultural system in the twenty-first century, such as declining productivity and ecosystem sustainability, are worsened by predictions of a growing population, which is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050. Factors related to climate change, such as rising temperatures and abiotic stresses, such as salinity and drought, put agricultural production at risk. Sustainable agriculture has become crucial, as it offers long-term environmental and social benefits by reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. One promising solution for sustainable agriculture is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). These bacteria, which are abundant in the rhizosphere, enhance plant growth both directly and indirectly by promoting root growth, biofertilization, and controlling phytopathogens. However, despite their potential, challenges still exist in terms of the inconsistent performance and mechanisms of PGPR, which limits their widespread adoption. Biofertilizers containing PGPR provide a sustainable alternative to conventional fertilizers by enhancing nutrient availability and soil fertility. Additionally, the integration of nanotechnology holds promise in improving agricultural sustainability by facilitating efficient nutrient uptake and the controlled release of fertilizers, thus reducing environmental impacts. PGPR have been shown to be effective in various crops such as maize and sugarcane, offering solutions for soil nutrient deficiencies and pathogen control. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of PGPR may be influenced by certain bacterial traits, underscoring the importance of selecting appropriate strains for optimal outcomes. In conclusion, the integration of PGPR and nanotechnology offers a comprehensive approach to sustainable agriculture, addressing the complex challenges.

Title: Impacts of Forest Fires on Soil: Exploring the Effects on Biotic and Abiotic Components

Abstract:Forest fires are a widespread occurrence in ecosystems worldwide, impacting both vegetation and soil. The effects of forest fires, as well as prescribed fires, on forest soil are complex, influencing soil organic matter, macro and micro-nutrients, and physical properties such as texture, color, pH, and bulk density, along with soil biota. The magnitude of the impact on forest soil depends on factors such as fire intensity, fuel load, and soil moisture. The severity and frequency of fire determine whether it is beneficial or harmful to the soil. Low-intensity fires can enhance plant available nutrients through the combustion of litter and soil organic matter, promoting rapid growth of herbaceous plants and increased nutrient storage. Conversely, high intensity fires can lead to complete loss of soil organic matter, volatilization of vital elements (N, P, S, K), and microbial death. Additionally, intense forest fires generate hydrophobic organic compounds that result in water-repellent soils. Forest fires also have long-term effects on forest soil. This paper aims to review the impacts of forest fires on various soil properties crucial for maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

Title: Inhibitory effect on acute herpes and prevention of postherpetic neuralgia in herpes simplex virus-1-infected mice using Ricinus communis extract

Abstract:Ricinus communis and valacyclovir (VACV) were tested for their effects on the progression of skin observation and pain responses in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The mice were infected with HSV-1 and treated with R. communis (8, 16, or 48 mg/kg) or VACV (15, 45, or 90 mg/kg) twice daily from days 2 to 8 post-infection. Skin lesion development and pain-associated reactions were assessed 27 days after infection. HSV-1 infection resulted in zosteriform skin observation and increased pain-related scores. Both R. communis and VACV demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in skin observation and pain-related ratings. The study also investigated the impact of the timing of R. communis and VACV administration on skin observation and pain responses and found that lesion scores were significantly reduced when R. communis treatment was initiated on day 2 post-infection. The inhibitory effects of R. communis and VACV on HSV-1 dissemination in the dorsal root ganglia were studied, showing a significant reduction in HSV-1 DNA replication number after the administration of both drugs. Additionally, the study aimed to investigate the impact of R. communis and VACV on the expression levels of pain-associated mRNA in the spinal cord of HSV-1-infected mice. The study demonstrated that R. communis therapy exhibited an inhibitory effect on pain-related factors.

Title: Ecological significance and multifaceted roles of macrofungi in a changing world. A review

Abstract:Macro-fungi, members of the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota groups, are large fungi with visible fruiting bodies, significant for their ecological roles. They serve as decomposers, mutualistic partners, and pathogens, influencing nutrient cycling, ecosystem functions, and biodiversity. The diverse phylum Basidiomycota comprises many macro-fungi with above-ground or below-ground fruiting bodies. Among approximately 100,000 fungal species, around 6,000 produce observable fruiting bodies and sclerotia. They engage in various lifestyles, including symbiotic and saprophytic relationships, impacting ecosystems and offering applications in biotechnology, medicine, and ecology. Macro-fungi influence forest services directly through food and resources, and indirectly by participating in ecological processes like nitrogen cycling. Global changes, such as climate shifts and habitat fragmentation, affect macro-fungi, potentially disrupting ecosystem dynamics. However, the conservation of macro-fungi is often overlooked, with limited understanding of their roles and vulnerability. Understanding their interactions with plants, animals, and substrates is crucial for effective conservation. Macro-fungi can influence nutrient cycling through mycorrhizal associations and contribute to ecological restoration. Despite challenges in studying them, macro-fungi hold promise for bio-remediation and technological applications. Preserving their diversity is essential for maintaining ecosystem balance and harnessing their benefits.

Title: Transient Hypothyroidism in a Patient with Depression

Abstract:A Japanese woman who was diagnosed with depression at 48 years old had been taking an interrupted antidepressant drug and her dietary intake had been decreased since 60 years old. Although her thyroid function tests at 54 and 59 years old were in normal ranges, serological findings at 61 years old showed low free tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyronine levels and a high thyroid-stimulating hormone level that indicated primary hypothyroidism. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, excessive iodine intakes, selenium deficiency, and drug-induced etiologies were unlikely, and insufficient dietary iodine intake due to decreasing dietary intakes might induce hypothyroidism in this case. Her thyroid function tests returned to normal ranges within 4 weeks after adding iodine-rich foods and restarting an antidepressant drug. Her thyroid function tests returned to normal ranges without thyroid hormone replacement during 2 years after the hypothyroidism diagnosis.

Title: Modelling effects of immediate rainfall on sap flux of Cypress trees in the Southwest Hilly area of China

Abstract:Background The hilly region of the central Sichuan basin is one of the most severely affected areas in China in terms of soil and water loss. For this reason, a large area of mixed alder and cypress forest has been established for protection. However, the uneven distribution of rainfall significantly impacts the stability of water usage in the plantations. Therefore, accurately understanding the response of trees to real-time rainfall is essential for effective forests management that optimizes hydrology and water resources. Aims To examine how the sap flux of the cypress forest responds to environmental factors and develop response models for two different conditions.


Abstract:In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of eight-week strength training using functional exercise band on speed, vertical jump, maximal strength and shot performance in 14-18 age group male soccer players. 24 football players in the 14-18 age group who play in young local football leagues participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The research was designed in two groups as the experimental group (n=12) and the control group (n=12). TRX training was applied to the experimental group of the study, along with basic football training, three days a week for eight weeks. Basic football training was applied to the control group of the study on a regular basis only in the same period of time. The effect of TRX training was investigated by applying speed, vertical jump, maximal strength and shooting accuracy tests to the players in both groups before and after eight weeks of training. SPSS program was used to analyze the data obtained from the research. The normality levels of the data were determined using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Among the parametric tests, independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test were used in the analysis of the data providing the normality assumption. According to the research findings, a statistically significant difference was found in the experimental group in favor of the posttests in vertical jump, benchpress maximal force, squat maximal force and shot hit tests (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test values in 10 m speed test (p>0.05). In the control group, a significant difference was found in favor of posttests in vertical jump and shot hit tests (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between 10 m speed, benchpress maximal force and squat maximal strength tests pre-test and post-test values (p>0.05).

Title: Hypoglycemic Coma and Exacerbation of Liver Dysfunction in a Patient with Depression

Abstract:A 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been thin without remarkable body weight fluctuation since her 30s and was diagnosed with depression at 45 years old was brought to our hospital by ambulance due to consciousness disorder. She had liver dysfunction [serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were <80 IU/L] at age 60–73 years. At the age of 74 years, she had hypoglycemic coma (blood sugar level, 7 mg/dL) and liver dysfunction exacerbation [serum AST and ALT (IU/L) levels, 2195 and 891, respectively]. Her consciousness level was recovered after an administration of glucose solution. Nutritional therapies at post-admission were initiated, and refeeding syndrome did not occur. Serum aminotransferase levels were decreased, although precise mechanisms of elevated liver enzymes were uncertain. Bilateral pleural effusion and ascites emerged, and she died of renal failure and respiratory insufficiency 2 weeks post-admission.

Title: Evaluation of phenolic and anthraquinone profiles of Polygonacaeae family from Turkey

Abstract:The purpose of this research is to compare the content of phenolic compounds (catechin, esculetin, polydatin, rutin, resveratrol, quercetin) and anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion) in Polygonum cognatum Meissn. and Rumex crispus L. plant taxa from the flora of Turkey. Extraction parameters such as solvent, solvent ratio, and time for soxhlet method were optimized, and the most effective extraction was carried out for eight hours with methanol-water (3:1 v/v). The development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method allowed for the simultaneous quantification of phenolic compounds and anthraquinones in the plant extracts. The analytical method conditions were defined through an investigation of various parameters, including mobile phase composition, flow rate, and column temperature. The method was validated with good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and recovery. The LOD and LOQ values of the compounds were in the range of 0.032–0.457 µg/mL and 0.106–1.523 µg/mL, respectively. The findings of the study showed that this analytical method was successfully applied to identify and measure the phenolic and anthraquinone compounds in Polygonum cognatum Meissn. and Rumex crispus L. plants.