Abstract:During the evolution of modern chicken production, there have been several changes in the nutritional requirements associated with a healthy food product, because antibiotics have residual effects on consumers. The latter committed a ban on the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry by the European Union in 2006. The development of antibiotic resistance has prompted the exploration of alternatives to improve the health and performance of animals without endangering consumers\' health. Examples of alternatives to antibiotics are organic food additives, including probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, symbiotics, etc. These additives are, therefore, nutritionally feasible substitutes for growth promoters and the breeding indices of animals treated with these additives were similar to those fed normal rations. Many studies have been shown that there is a beneficial impact on the performance of poultry, which they have indicated that supplementation with antibiotics can have positive effects on the quality of meat. However, other studies have shown that supplementation of additives organics in the broiler ration has no impact on the meat quality.
Abstract:Diabetes generates a lot of health expenses in terms of treatment and care, and new alternatives must be introduced for good disease control, such as herbal medicine. This study aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of herbal medicines in the treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This is an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted with 243 people with diabetes, in two cities in northeastern Brazil, for three months. The patients took a combination of oral antidiabetics with 3g of cinnamon or 1.2g of ginger. Ginger reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 29.5 mg/dL, and cinnamon by 10 mg/dL, and HbA1c by 0.3% in the ginger group and 0.2% in the cinnamon group. After the cost-effectiveness analysis, the best therapy was the association of ginger with oral antidiabetics, for R$ 56.17 per month. Further studies are recommended that consider the dose and time of intervention in different regions.
Abstract:In order to contribute a better characterization of the populations of local hens in the north-western region of Tunisia, this study was undertaken in four delegations and focused on a total number of 309 chickens. In the four regions surveyed, breeders were interviewed using a questionnaire written in French and translated orally into the local language. According to these surveys family breeding is not considered as a main activity among the families surveyed despite its socio-economic importance, women are the main responsible for this breeding, the hens are raised in poor a condition which explains their low productivity and high susceptibility to disease. For each hen, the color and distribution of the plumage was determined. Thus, we determined the shape and color of the crest and eyes also, the color of barbs and beak. A morpho-biometric characterization was carried out in the same way, by measuring the length and the diameter of the tarsus, the length of the crest and the barbel, and finally the body weight of all the subjects was determined. The average weight for both sexes combined is 1617g ± 478g. It is significantly high when the crest is double and red also, when the mumps is round and pink (p <0.05). A great phenotypic diversity was noticed which is due to the presence of a number of mutations with visible effect. Therefore 15 phenotypes in the coloring of the plumage were revealed indicating the dominance of the brown color. Hens with bare necks and feathered tarsi at the same time represent the lowest proportions. The exploratory statistics applied to all the phenotypic (qualitative) characters show that these four areas are similar in the practices of free-range poultry farming.
Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intake of flax on ewes dairy performance during the milking period. Twenty-four Sicilo- Sarde ewes were divided into three homogeneous lots (control group and two experimental groups (D1) and (D2)) and received a common base of hay (1.5 kg DM / ewe / day) supplemented by concentrate feed at the rate of 500 g / ewe / day. Ewes of two experimental groups (D1 and D2) received different doses of flax seeds “Linum usitatissimum L.” of the order of 70 g and 100g/ewe/day respectively.\nThe total amount of milk produced by the control group (405.32 ml) was significantly lower than those produced by ewes receiving flax (434.03 ml and 510 ml respectively for lots (D1) and ( D2)). This addition also has a significant effect (P<0.05) on some quality parameters such as protein content, urea and dry defatted extract, but without changing significantly the fat content, the content lactose and physical parameters of the three batches of milk. The content of conjugated linolenic acids (CLA) was significantly elevated (P<0.05) by increasing the dose of flax grains in the diet. The ratio of PUFA (n-6)/(n-3) decreased with increasing linseed dose.
Abstract:Biodelignification is the biological decomposition of lignin to produce fibers with low content. Several studies suggested the use of microorganisms in degrading lignin, however, there is no study on the use of mixed fiber fraction of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) as a substrate in the spontaneous biodelignification process. Therefore, this study aims to isolate and characterize lignin-degrading molds from a mixture of OPEFB fraction and leachate from spontaneous biodelignification and determine their enzyme activity and characteristics using an exploratory method. The results showed that there were 5 mold isolates from the mixed fiber fraction of OPEFB substrate that passed through biodelignification, and 3 mold isolates from the biodelignified leachate substrate. Furthermore, the species of mold isolated from the mixed fiber fraction of OPEFB that biodelignified were Aspergillus sp. (isolate S1), Chrysosporium sp. (isolate S2), Aspergillus sp. (isolate S4), Chrysosporium sp. (isolate S7), and Penicillium sp. (isolate S8), while the mold species isolated from biodelignified leachate were Penicillium sp. (isolate A3), Aspergillus sp. (isolate A5), and Chrysosporium sp. (isolate A6). All the isolated molds had different ligninase activity and the highest is in isolate S2 with an optimum temperature of 500C and pH 6, lignin peroxidase in isolate A5 with an optimum temperature of 350C and pH 6, and manganese peroxidase in isolate S2 with an optimum temperature of 300C and pH 7.
Abstract:This research relates to testing the effect of induced heat stress on eggs during the two endothermic and exothermic incubation phases on incubation time, hatchability, and chick quality. Two incubations at two different breeder ages (45 and 46 weeks) were performed. Two incubators were used: Petersime vision 576 and Petersime Biostreamer 12S Iriss. Two thousand four – hundred incubating eggs from a broiler reproductive strain were used. \nThe results showed an average loss rate of 10.92%. Egg weight loss was found significantly related (P <0.001) to the type of incubator. The average hatching rate was 92.60%. Furthermore, the application of low temperatures has a high impact (P <0.001) on the weight and yield of the chicks. Moreover, Chick’s quality was influenced by lower temperatures. We noted a lower score of 84 and that 75% have a score of 100 and 25% have a score of less than 100. Moreover, 25% of the control group chicks were hatched before 24 h of removal and 75% by 20 h. Heat stress duration reduced the percentage of day-old chicks with high quality as well as average chick quality score (P <0.05). Day-old chick quality is a relatively good indicator of broiler performance. However, the results suggest that to improve the performance prediction power of chick quality, it would be better to define it as a combination of several qualitative aspects of the day-old chick. In conclusion, incubation temperature (embryo temperature) is probably the biggest and most influential factor during incubation on chick quality.
Abstract:The present work was undertaken to evaluate milk yield composition and modeling of the lactation curve of Arabian donkeys. Three experiments were carried out in 4 Tunisian regions characterized by a large asin herd .In a total of 164 milk samples collected during three seasons. The chemical composition of donkey milk was carried out for dry matter, fat, crude protein and lactose .The chemical proprieties of milk were analyzed using ANOVA linear models to determine the influence of the lactation stage and the season on the milk yield. For four mathematical models of lactation, several criteria were established to choose the most reliable and representative lactation curve model. The results showed that the donkey milk composition was: dry matter 9.49%, fat 1.19%, lactose 5.89% and protein 1.48%, Besides, the results revealed that the season significantly affected the dry matter, the milk fat and protein contents. The wood model appears to be the most appropriate among the tested models and can be used to estimate the dairy potential of donkeys. Further research on milk production, milk functionality, and valorization, market development, and genetic selection will help to better preserve and use of donkeys.
Abstract:An important, essential and typical public space of a modern city is a square. Similar to other cities in the world, cities in Vietnam also have had types of squares with different architectures, landscapes and histories of formulation, change and development. Different squares but they all are public spaces and open for social reactions of urban habitants and any people from other places. All people can come to squares to meet their communication demand including relaxing, entertaining, meeting, conversation or simply passing through the square as an open travelling space. However, an issue raised here is that cities are increasingly widening in the scope and the populace becomes more and more that squares seem to narrow and the social interactions are polarized into diversified small groups. This paper sets an objective to study and clarify a perception that the square is an open space for social reactions through that the people participate in the development of the cities. A fundamental research hypothesis is that the social reactions of the people in a public space such as square reflects a way mechanism and level of their involvement in the management of an urban social life in particular and social development in general.
Abstract:The study looks at the impact of monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria. Annual data from 1996 to 2018 obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS) were used to estimate the model. The study limited itself to the variables such as money supply, interest rate, exchange rate and gross domestic product on consumer price index (CPI). In Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria is responsible for controlling money supply. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) multiple regression method was employed to analyse impact of monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria. The results showed that regression model is statistically significant indicating that economic development in Nigeria is not well monetized and problems of corruption and political instability may render monetary policy impotent. The study therefore concluded that monetary policy has not been effective in ensuring price stability in Nigeria. As a result, the study recommends that authorities in Nigeria should employ monetary policy measure in addressing price instability in Nigeria. Furthermore, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should design policy measures that promote the value of the naira and check exchange rate fluctuation and adequate infrastructures should be put in place as these will increase level of productivity and enhance price stability in Nigeria.
Abstract:Hydrometallurgical industries generate multiple of toxic heavy metals that can be pollute the environment. Some of them are present as cations and other are present as anions. To remove these toxic pollutants lots of processes have used. Among these processes the emulsified liquid membrane has been investigated. \nIn this study, the membrane used to remove lead from aqueous solutions was composed of two phases: organic and aqueous. TOPO, SPAN 80 and Fuel-oil are the composition of organic phase, however H2SO4 represent the aqueous phase. The effect of different factors such as: the percentage of TOPO, the concentration of H2SO4 and the concentration of lead in solution were examined using Box-Behnken design. From the optimization of the three parameters it was found that a total extraction of lead (100%) was achieved at optimized conditions (75ppm de Pb2+, 4%W de TOPO and 0.5M de H2SO4).